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Year : 2008  |  Volume : 5  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 37-42

Graves ophthalmopathy and its management - An overview


1 Clayton Centre for Advanced Eye Specialties, Wakefield, United Kingdom
2 Department of Pathology, Indian Spinal Injuries Centre, New Delhi, India
3 Artemis Health Institute, Gurgaon, India

Correspondence Address:
B Kapoor
Clayton Centre for Advanced Eye Specialties, Wakefield
United Kingdom
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


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Graves ' ophthalmopathy is the most frequent extrathyroidal manifestation of Graves ' disease. The manifestations of Graves ' ophthalmopathy are secondary to an increase in the volume of orbital content. The clinical features include Lid lag and lid retraction, conjunctival erythema and Chemosis, proptosis, restrictive extraocular myopathy and optic neuropathy. Disease activity can be assessed by using the Clinical Activity Score (CAS). Graves' ophthalmopathy is thought to develop as a consequence of autoimmunity to cross reacting thyroid and orbital autoantigens. Investigations include Thyroid Function Tests, Anti TSH receptor, Anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody assay and MRI of orbit. Treatment options for severe active eye disease consist of Glucocorticoids or other immunosuppressive therapy and radiotherapy. Rehabilitative surgical procedures are done after the resolution of active eye disease. They include orbital decompression, strabismus surgery and surgery for lid retraction.


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