Home About us Editorial board Search Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Contacts Login 
Home Print this page Email this page
Users Online: 256



 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2012  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 48-52

The effects of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on thyroid function in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats


1 Department of Biochemistry, Elgomaih Medical Research Centre, University of Dongola, Dongola, Sudan
2 Department of Biochemistry, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan
3 Department of Anatomy, University of Dongola, Dongola, Sudan
4 Department of Biochemistry, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan

Date of Web Publication12-May-2012

Correspondence Address:
Saleh Hassan Sharif
Department of Biochemistry, Elgomaih Medical Research Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Dongola, Dongola
Sudan
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-0354.96044

Rights and Permissions
  Abstract 

Context: Nigella sativa, (black cumin seeds) compounds display a remarkable array of biochemical, immunological, and pharmacological actions, including bronchodilatory, antibacterial, hypotensive, immunopotentiating, hypoglycemic, and antitumor activity. Aims : The aim of the present study was to evaluate effects of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract (NSE) on the thyroid function test in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. Settings and Design: Experimental study. Materials and Methods: Alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally at single dose of 150 mg/kg body weight to induce diabetes. Twenty Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: NSE-treated normal, diabetic, NSE-treated diabetic, and control. NSE was administered daily orally by gavage at a dose of 1 g/kg body weight for 14 days. Serum concentration of TSH, T 4 , T 3 were measured by radioimmunoassay on day 7 th and 14 th . Statistical Analysis Used: Data are expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. For statistical analysis, ANOVA was used. Results: NSE induced a significant increase in the T 3 serum concentration on both day 7 th and 14 th in the diabetic rats and increase T 4 serum concentration on day 14 th in the normal rats. Conclusions: The results revealed that daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract (1 g/kg Bwt.) for 14 days significantly increased the serum concentration of T 4 in the normal Wistar albino rats. On the other hand the results revealed that treatment returned the serum concentration of T 3 to the normal level in the Alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Further work is suggested for evaluating the effect of Nigella sativa L. on the serum concentration of thyroid hormones to elucidate the possible mode of action.

Keywords: Alloxan-rats, Nigella sativa ethanolic extract, thyroid function


How to cite this article:
Sharif SH, Elmahdi BM, Mohammed AM, Mohammed AH. The effects of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on thyroid function in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thyroid Res Pract 2012;9:48-52

How to cite this URL:
Sharif SH, Elmahdi BM, Mohammed AM, Mohammed AH. The effects of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on thyroid function in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thyroid Res Pract [serial online] 2012 [cited 2017 Jul 26];9:48-52. Available from: http://www.thetrp.net/text.asp?2012/9/2/48/96044


  Introduction Top


The genus Nigella belongs to the Ranunulaceae family and comprises about eight species. [1] Nigella sativa L. is one of these species and commonly known as "Black cumin" or "Black seed." It grows in Mediterranean countries and it is also cultivated in the south of Algeria, [2] and it has been used as herbal medicine for more than 2000 years. It is also used as food additive and flavor in many countries. [3] The seed contain both fixed an essential oils, protein, alkaloid, flavonoid, and saponins. [2]

Compounds of black cumin seeds display a remarkable array of biochemical, immunological, and pharmacological actions, including bronchodilatory [4] antibacterial, [5] hypotensive [6] immunopotentiating [7] hypoglycemic, [3] and antitumor [8] activity.

There is evidence that Nigella sativa L. crushed extract returns the decreased T 3 in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbit to the normal level. [9] In addition Fararh et al.,[10] reported that the treatment with N. sativa oil commenced 6 weeks after induction of diabetes at a dose of 400 mg/kg Bwt. by gastric gavage significantly decrease the plasma concentration of glucose.

Regarding effect of other medicinal plants in thyroid functions Panda et al., [11] reported that feeding of Bacopa monnieri leaf extract (200 mg/kg Bwt. 4) increased the serum concentration of T 4 in male mice. Feeding of Bauhinia purpurea bark extract (2.5 mg/kg Bwt.) for 20 days increased serum concentration of T 4 in female mice. [12] Azadirachta indica leaf extract (100 mg/kg Bwt.) increased the serum concentration of T 4 . [13] While T 4 production and/or release was stimulated by these medicinal plants. Panda and Kar [14] reported that the administration of guggulu (200 mg/kg Bwt. For 30 days) has potential to enhance T 3 /T 4 ratio.

The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on thyroid function test in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats.


  Materials and Methods Top


Plant material

Nigella sativa dry seeds brought from the local market, cleaned, dried, mechanically powdered, extracted with 96% ethanol and evaporated, with rotary evaporator to render the extract alcohol free. The extract kept in refrigerator at 4 0 C until used. [8]

Animals

The rats were injected intraperitoneally with Alloxan monohydrate dissolved in sterile normal saline at a dose of 150 mg/kg body wt. After 6 days, rats with diabetes were used for the experiment.

The animals were divided into four groups of five animals each and were named as A, B, C, and D.

Group A: Each normal rat received 10 ml/kg body wt/day orally dimethyl sulphoxide and normal saline (1:10, respectively) by gavage for 14 days and served as control.

Group B: Each normal rat received orally 1g/kg body wt/day Nigella sativa extract (NSE) dissolved by the initial addition of dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), followed by the addition of normal saline and administered by gavage for 14 days. The optimum oral dose of NSE is 0.88 g/kg body weight. This corresponds to the optimum effective dose of NSE in treatment of stomach ulcer [15] and as antitumor. [8]

Group C: Alloxan-induced diabetic rats treated as group B.

Group D: Alloxan-induced diabetic rats received 10 ml/kg body wt/day orally dimethyl sulphoxide and normal saline (1:10, respectively) by gavage for 14 days.

Blood samples were collected from the four groups on day 7 th and 14 th from the beginning the treatment.

Sample collection

1.5 ml of blood was collected from the rat / s orbital plexus by plain capillary tubes and was placed in plain containers. Serum was separated spontaneously and placed in plain containers and stored at 4 o C until analysis. Blood for glucose determination was collected by heparinized capillary tubes and was placed in fluoride containers. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at speed 4000 rpm for 10 min and placed in plain containers and stored at 4 o C until analysis.

Hormones estimation

Serum T 3 , T 4 and Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level were measured by Radioimmunoassay. [16]

Statistical analysis

Data are expressed as the mean ± S.E.M. For statistical analysis ANOVA was used.


  Results Top


Effect of N. sativa on plasma glucose

The results of plasma glucose concentrations of group A, B, C, and D on day 7 th and 14 th from the beginning of the treatment are represented in [Table 1] and [Figure 1]. The plasma concentration of glucose is significantly (P < 0.001) decreased in group C compared with group B on day 7 th and 14 th .
Figure 1: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the plasma concentration of glucose: Bars having different small superscript letters are significantly different at (P < 0.001) based on ANOVA analysis. Group A: normal rats received the basal diet and orally 1 g/kg Bwt./day N. sativa ethanolic extract. Group B: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet. Group C: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet and orally 1 g/kg Bwt./day N. sativa ethanolic extract. Group D: Normal rats received the basal diet and served as control

Click here to view
Table 1: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the serum concentration of Glucose, thyroid stimulating hormone, T4 and T3 on day 7th and day 14th from the beginning of the treatment in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats

Click here to view


Effect of N. sativa on serum thyroid stimulating hormone

The results of serum TSH concentrations of group A, B, C, and D on day 7 th and 14 th from the beginning of the treatment are represented in [Table 1] and [Figure 2]. There is nonsignificant difference in the serum concentration of TSH on day 14 th in group A compared with the control group.
Figure 2: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the serum concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone on day 7th and day 14th. Bars having different small superscript letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) based on ANOVA analysis. Group A: normal rats received the basal diet and orally 1 g/kg Bwt./day N. sativa ethanolic extract. Group B: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet. Group C: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet and orally N sativa ethanolic extract Group D: Normal rats received the basal diet and served as control

Click here to view


Effect of N. sativa on serum T 4

The results of serum T 4 concentrations of group A, B, C and D on day 7 th and 14 th from the beginning of the treatment are shown in [Table 1] and [Figure 3]. The serum concentration of T 4 is significantly (P < 0.05) increased in group A compared with the control group on day 14 th . Also there is a nonsignificant decrease in group C compared with group B on day 7 th and 14 th .
Figure 3: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the serum concentration of T4 (mmol/l) on day 7th and day 14th. Bars having different small superscript letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) based on ANOVA. Group A: received the basal diet and served as control. Group B: received the basal diet and 1 g/kg Bwt. /day orally of N. sativa ethanolic extract. Group C: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet and served as control. Group D: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet and orally of N. sativa ethanolic extract

Click here to view


Effect of N. sativa on serum T 3

The results of serum T 4 concentrations of group A, B, C, and D on day 7 th and 14 th from the beginning of the treatment are shown in [Table 1], [Figure 4]. The serum concentration of T 4 is significantly (P < 0.05) increased in group A compared with group the control group on day 14 th . Also there is a nonsignificant decrease in group C compared with group B on day 7 th and 14 th .
Figure 4: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the serum concentration of T3 on day 7 and 14. Bars having different small superscript letters are significantly different at (P < 0.05) based on ANOVA. Group A: received the basal diet and served as control Group B: received the basal diet and 1 g/kg Bwt. /day orally of N. sativa ethanolic extract Group C: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet and served as control Group. D: alloxan-induced diabetic rats received the basal diet and orally of N. sativa ethanolic extract.

Click here to view


The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the T 3 /T 4 ratio:

The results of T 3 /T 4 ratio of group A, B, C, and D on day 7 th and day 14 th from the beginning of the treatment are represented in [Table 2] and [Table 3]. There is significant difference (P < 0.05) in group D compared to group C on both day 7 th and day 14 th . That is due to increased peripheral deiodination of T 4 to T 3 by improving the peripheral 5?-deiodinase enzyme.
Table 2: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L, ethanolic extract on the serum concentration of T3, T4 and T3/ T4 ratio on day 7th from the beginning of the treatment in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats

Click here to view
Table 3: The effect of daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on the serum concentration of T3, T4, and T3/ T4 ratio on day 14th from the beginning of the treatment in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats

Click here to view



  Discussion Top


The results also showed plasma concentration of glucose was decreased significantly (P < 0.001) in group C compared with group B on day 7 th and 14 th . These results was in line with Fararh et al.,[10] who reported that the treatment with N. sativa oil commenced 6 weeks after induction of diabetes at a dose of 400 mg/kg Bwt. by gastric gavage significantly decrease the plasma concentration of glucose. These results also were in line with report from other study that the oral administration of Nigella sativa L. crushed seeds water extract decreased the plasma concentration of glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. [9] The effect attributed to that the hepatic glucose production from gluconeogenic precursors (alanine, glycerol and lactate) significantly lower in treated animals.

The results showed that the serum concentration of TSH were not decreased in group C on day 14 compared with day 7, this indicating that the daily oral administration of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract prevent the significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the serum concentration of TSH that was occurred in group B on day 14 compared with day 7.

The results showed that the serum concentration of T 4 increased significantly (P < 0.05) in group A compared with the control group (D). These results were in line with the reports from other studies evaluated the effect of other medicinal plants on the serum concentration of T 4 in experimental animals. These results agree with Panda et al.,[11] who reported that feeding of Bacopa monnieri leaf extract (200/kg Bwt.) increased the serum concentration of T 4 in male mice. The results also agree with Panda and Kar, [12] who reported that feeding of Bauhinia purpurea bark extract (2.5 mg/kg Bwt.) for 20 days increased serum concentration of T 4 in female mice. The results were in line with Panda and Kar [13] who reported that feeding of Azadirachta indica leaf extract (100 mg/kg Bwt.) increased the serum concentration of T 4. While T 4 production and/ or release was stimulated by these medicinal plants.

The results showed that the serum concentration of T 3 increased significantly (P < 0.05) in group C compared with the group B. These results were in line with report from other study that the oral administration of Nigella sativa L. crushed seeds water extract increased the serum concentration of T 3 in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. [9] The effect attributed to increased peripheral deiodination of T 4 to T 3 by improved the peripheral 5-deiodinase enzyme and returned the serum concentration of T 3 to the normal level in the diabetic rats.

Concerning T 3 /T 4 ratio of group A, B, C, and D there is significant difference (P < 0.05) in group D compared to group C on both day 7 th and day 14 th . The results were in line with Meral et al.[9]

 
  References Top

1.Mozaffarian V. A dictionary of Iranian plant names. Tehran: Farhang Moaser Publisher; 1998. p. 356.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.Winkler C, Houcher B, Schroechsnadel K, Schennach H, Fuchs D. Nigella sativa seeds (black cumin) counteract cytokine-induced neopterine production and tryptophan degradation in vitro. Pterines 2005;16:152-3.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Hawsawi ZA, Ali BA, Bamosa AO. Effect of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Ann Saudi Med 2001;21:242-4.  Back to cited text no. 3
[PUBMED]    
4.El Tahir KE, Ashour MM, Al-Harbi MM. The respiratory effects of the volatile oil of black seeds (Nigella sativa) in guinea-pigs: Elucidation of the mechanism(s) of action. Gen Pharmacol 1993;24:1115-22.  Back to cited text no. 4
[PUBMED]    
5.Hanafy MS, Hatem ME. Study on the antimicrobial activity of Nigella sativa seed (black cumin). J Ethanopharmacol 1979;34:275-8.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Zaoui A, Cherrah Y, Lacaille-Dubois MA, Settaf A, Amarouch H, Hassar M. Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Therapie 2000;55:379-83.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]    
7.El-Kadi A, Kandil O. The black seed (Nigella sativa) and immunity: its action on human T cell subset. Fed Proc 1987;46:1222.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Musa D, Dilsiz, N, Gumushan, H, Ulakoglu G, Bitiren M. Antitumor effects of ethanol extract of Nigella sativa seeds. Biolagia Bratisla 2005;59:735-40.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Meral I, Yener Z, Ozbek H, Ustun R. Effects of Nigella sativa L. on serum concentration of thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone and glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Ir Vet J 2003;56:462-4.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Fararh KM, Atoji Y, Shimizu Y, Shiina T, Nikami H, Takewaki T. Mechanisms of hypoglycemic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa L. oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters. Res Vet Sci 2004;77:123-9.  Back to cited text no. 10
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
11.Kar A, Panda S, Bharti S. Relative efficacy of three medicinal plant extracts in the alteration of thyroid hormone concentrations in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81 : 281-5.   Back to cited text no. 11
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
12.Panda S, Kar A. Withania somnifera and Bauhinia purpurea in the regulation of circulating thyroid hormone concentrations in female mice. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:233-9.   Back to cited text no. 12
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
13.Panda S, Kar A. How safe is neem extract with respect to thyroid function in male mice? Pharmacol Res 2000;41:419-22.   Back to cited text no. 13
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
14.Panda S, Kar A. Guggulu (Commiphora mukul) potentially ameliorates hypothyroidism in female mice. Phytother Res 2005;19:78-80.  Back to cited text no. 14
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
15.El-Dakhakhny M, Barakat M, El-Halim MA, Aly SM. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on gastric secretion and ethanol-induced ulcer in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:299-304.  Back to cited text no. 15
[PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
16.Gupta RP, Verma PC, Garg SL. The effect of experimental zinc deficiency on thyroid gland in guinea pigs. Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41:376-81.  Back to cited text no. 16
[PUBMED]    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3]


This article has been cited by
1 Neuroprotective effects of Nigella sativa extract upon the hippocampus in PTU-induced hypothyroidism juvenile rats: A stereological study
Farimah Asiaei,Alireza Fazel,Ali Akbar Rajabzadeh,Mahmoud Hosseini,Farimah Beheshti,Masoumeh Seghatoleslam
Metabolic Brain Disease. 2017;
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
2 Histological and immunohistochemical study on the possible ameliorating effects of thymoquinone on the salivary glands of rats with experimentally induced hypothyroidism
Nasra N. Ayuob
The Egyptian Journal of Histology. 2016; 39(2): 125
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
3 Effects of <i>Nigella sativa</i> L. Seed Extract on Fatigue, Blood Biochemical Parameters and Thyroid Function in Male Mice
Azadeh Shariatifar,Mahdieh Riazi,Mona Ebnolelm,Mahsa Hadipour Jahromy
Chinese Medicine. 2014; 05(01): 16
[Pubmed] | [DOI]
4 Effect of High Protein Diet Containing Fortified Bread with Fenugreek and Nigella sativa Seeds on Rats Suffering from Diabetes
Mohamed Y. Mahmoud
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2013; 12(8): 736
[Pubmed] | [DOI]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

 
  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Materials and Me...
Results
Discussion
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed4532    
    Printed132    
    Emailed1    
    PDF Downloaded390    
    Comments [Add]    
    Cited by others 4    

Recommend this journal