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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 96-99

Thyroid dysfunction and autoantibodies in first degree relatives of North Indian children with autoimmune thyroiditis


1 Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh; Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Pediatrics, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Immunopathology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
4 Department of Nuclear Medicine, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Devi Dayal
Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Unit, Advanced Pediatric Center, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0973-0354.157931

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Background: Family studies in developed countries show an increased prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in first degree relatives of children with autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT). Such data is scarce from developing country setups. Materials and Methods: Thyroid profiles and autoantibodies were evaluated in 50 first degree relatives of 50 children with AIT. Results: Eleven (22%) subjects had raised thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH); 4 fathers (42.5%), 3 mothers (12%), 1 brother (33%) and 3 (23%) sisters. Three (6%) showed thyroid profiles consistent with hypothyroidism. Levels of triiodothyronine (T 3 ) were raised in 7 (28%) mothers and 2 (15.4%) sisters while 2 (8%) mothers and 3 (23.1%) sisters also had increased thyroxine (T 4 ) levels; none had low TSH or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies were positive in 9 (18%) subjects; 4 mothers (4/25, 16%) 3 fathers (3/9, 33%) and 2 sisters (2/13, 15.4%). Mean T 3 levels were lower, mean T4 were similar and mean TSH levels were higher in TPO-positive as compared TPO-negative subjects. Anti-Tg antibody positivity was found in 32 (64%) subjects; 14 (56%) mothers, 7 (77.7%) fathers and 11 (84.6%) sisters. Mean thyroid hormone levels were similar in Anti-Tg positive and negative subjects. Two (8%) mothers, 1 (7.7%) sister and 2 (22.2%) fathers had both antibodies in their serum; their thyroid profiles were similar to subjects with anti-TPO positivity. Conclusions: Thyroid dysfunction is present in first degree relatives of North Indian children with AIT. Anti-TPO antibodies are less common but have strong correlation with thyroid dysfunction. Conversely, anti-thyroglobulin (TG) antibodies are commonly detected but correlate poorly with thyroid dysfunction.


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