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Year : 2017  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 86-88

A rare presentation of autoimmune thyroid disease in mother and neonate postpartum

Department of Endocrinology, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Mythili Ayyagari
7-5-123, Plot 78, Mythreyi Nagar, Pandurangapuram, Visakhapatnam - 530 003, Andhra Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/trp.trp_15_17

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This is a case of long-standing hypothyroidism on levothyroxine (LT4) replacement developing Graves' disease postpartum and the newborn presenting with transient congenital hypothyroidism. The clinical and laboratory data of the case are reported along with a brief literature review. A 27-year-old female who has hypothyroidism for the past 3 years and gestational diabetes mellitus delivered uneventfully. The thyroid function tests (TFTs) of the newborn showed congenital hypothyroidism which was transient and resolved by 3 months' age. An ultrasound of thyroid showed gland in situ. The diagnosis of the newborn is transient congenital hypothyroidism probably due to thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor-blocking antibodies (TBAbs). The mother who has hypothyroidism for the past 3 years was stable with euthyroidism and was on LT4 100 ug daily. Seven months postpartum, she had lid lag and proptosis of her left eye. Her TFTs revealed thyrotoxicosis and was advised to stop LT4. Magnetic resonance imaging orbits were normal and her TBAbs are elevated at 4.65 IU/L (<1.22). Antimicrosomal antibodies and antithyroid peroxidase antibodies were negative. The orbitopathy resolved over 6 weeks and the mother remains euthyroid without LT4 on a follow-up period of 8 months. Close monitoring of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) in pregnancy and postpartum is necessary due to the immune switching in this period and may obviate the need for LT4 therapy. The suspicion of transient congenital hypothyroidism due to TBAb should be high in neonates born to mothers with AITD.

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